Thyroid Disease – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


Why is the thyroid gland so crucial to our health, and what happens when it doesn’t function correctly? These are questions that often go unanswered in our daily lives. Guided by the expertise of Dr. Rasha El Naggar from Etara Wellness, this blog aims to demystify the thyroid – a small gland with a significant impact on our overall well-being. 

From understanding its basic functions to recognizing the signs of dysfunction, we’ll delve into everything you need to know about thyroid health.

What is the Thyroid?

The thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped organ nestled at the front of the neck, is a powerhouse of activity vital to our overall health. Its influence extends far beyond its size, impacting numerous bodily functions that are essential for our well-being.

Comprehensive Functions of the Thyroid Gland

  • Hormonal Production and Regulation – The thyroid produces thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones crucial for regulating the body’s metabolic rate, heart rate, temperature, and energy levels.
  • Metabolic Mastery – Acting as the body’s thermostat, it meticulously regulates metabolism, thereby influencing weight management, energy expenditure, and temperature control.
  • Protein Synthesis – It plays a significant role in protein synthesis, which is fundamental for the growth, repair, and maintenance of various tissues in the body.
  • Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism – The thyroid hormones directly affect how the body metabolizes carbohydrates and fats, impacting weight and energy levels.
  • Neurological Influence – From brain development in infants and children to cognitive functioning in adults, the thyroid hormones are integral to a healthy nervous system.
  • Cholesterol Management – By regulating cholesterol levels, the thyroid contributes to heart health and the prevention of related diseases.
  • Reproductive Health – Particularly in women, thyroid hormones influence menstrual cycles, fertility, and overall reproductive health.
  • Endocrine Interaction – The thyroid works in harmony with other endocrine glands, particularly the pituitary gland, ensuring a balanced hormonal environment in the body.

The thyroid’s myriad functions make it a critical component of our body’s endocrine system. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining balance and health across various physiological aspects. Dr. Rasha El Naggar emphasizes the importance of understanding and maintaining thyroid health as a cornerstone of overall wellness.

What is Thyroid disease?

Thyroid disease refers to a spectrum of disorders that affect the thyroid gland’s ability to function correctly. This small, butterfly-shaped gland in the neck plays a crucial role in regulating the body’s metabolism through the production of hormones. When these hormone levels are imbalanced, it leads to thyroid disease.

Thyroid diseases primarily manifest in two forms based on hormone production –

  • Hyperthyroidism – This is the condition where the thyroid is overactive, producing excess thyroid hormones. As a result, the body’s metabolism accelerates abnormally. Symptoms include rapid heart rate, weight loss, heightened energy consumption, and feelings of anxiety or nervousness.
  • Hypothyroidism – In contrast, hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is underactive, leading to insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This slowdown in metabolic processes can cause fatigue, weight gain, and a decreased ability to tolerate cold temperatures.

Causes of Thyroid Disease


Thyroid disease can arise from various conditions, each affecting the gland’s functionality differently –

  • Thyroiditis – This refers to the inflammation of the thyroid gland, which can lower hormone production. It can be a temporary condition or part of a chronic issue, impacting thyroid function significantly.
  • Iodine Deficiency – Iodine is a critical element used by the thyroid to produce hormones. An iodine deficiency can severely impact hormone production.
  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – A common cause of hypothyroidism, this autoimmune disorder leads the body’s immune system to attack the thyroid gland, gradually impairing its ability to produce hormones.
  • Postpartum Thyroiditis – Some women experience thyroiditis after childbirth, which can be a temporary condition affecting hormone levels.

For hyperthyroidism, some common causes include –

  • Graves’ Disease – This autoimmune disorder results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones, affecting the entire thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid Nodules – Overactive nodules within the thyroid can independently produce thyroid hormones, leading to an excess.
  • Excessive Iodine – An overload of iodine in the body, possibly due to certain medications or dietary sources, can cause the thyroid to produce too many hormones.

Thyroid disease is a common health issue, affecting millions globally. It can occur in individuals of any age, gender, or ethnic background, though it is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopause. Risk factors include a family history of thyroid disease, certain autoimmune conditions, high iodine medication usage, being over 60, especially for women, and prior thyroid treatments or thyroid cancer.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

Thyroid disease can be challenging to diagnose due to its varied symptoms, which often mimic other conditions. It’s essential to understand these symptoms, categorized into those associated with hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

When the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, it leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms associated with this condition include-

  • Emotional Changes (Anxiety, Irritability, Nervousness)
  • Sleep Disturbances
  • Muscle Weakness and Tremors
  • Eye Issues (Vision Problems, Eye Irritation)
  • Menstrual Changes
  • Unexplained Weight Loss
  • Enlarged Thyroid Gland (Goiter)
  • Heat Sensitivity

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid)

Conversely, hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is not active enough, leading to a deficiency in thyroid hormones. Symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Hair and Skin Changes (Dry, Coarse Hair, Dry/Pale Skin)
  • Weight Gain
  • Memory Problems (Forgetfulness, Difficulty Concentrating)
  • Cold Intolerance
  • Menstrual Changes
  • Voice Changes (Hoarse Voice)

Diagnosing Thyroid Disorders

The diagnosis of thyroid disorders is a multifaceted process that involves a range of tests and assessments. These may include clinical evaluation, physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies like ultrasounds, and specialized tests such as radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU). Accurate diagnosis is essential for tailoring effective treatment plans. 

At Etara Wellness, Dr. Rasha El Naggar and her team are committed to guiding individuals through this comprehensive diagnostic journey, ensuring precise and personalized thyroid care.

Treatment for Thyroid Disorders

The treatment of thyroid disorders aims to restore hormonal balance and manage symptoms. Here are the key approaches to managing thyroid disease – 

  • Medication – Hormone replacement therapy (e.g., levothyroxine) for hypothyroidism and antithyroid drugs for hyperthyroidism.
  • Radioactive Iodine (RAI) Therapy – Recommended for reducing thyroid gland activity in hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer cases.
  • Surgery (Thyroidectomy) – Removal of part or all of the thyroid gland, suitable for large goiters, thyroid cancer, or treatment-resistant cases.
  • Supportive Measures – Lifestyle modifications, including dietary adjustments, stress management, and regular check-ups, enhance thyroid health. Dietary supplements and complementary therapies can be considered under healthcare provider guidance.

Thyroid-Friendly Diet

A well-balanced diet plays a crucial role in supporting thyroid health. Here are dietary guidelines to consider for optimal thyroid function –


  • Iodine-rich foods – Incorporate iodine sources like iodized salt, seafood, seaweed, and dairy products, as iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production.
  • Selenium Sources – Include selenium-rich foods such as Brazil nuts, organic liver, and cold-water fish, as selenium helps regulate thyroid hormones.
  • Protein – Consume lean proteins like grass-fed meats, free-range chicken, wild-caught seafood, and beans to support thyroid function.
  • Dark Leafy Greens – Incorporate greens like spinach and kale, as they provide magnesium essential for thyroid health.
  • Vitamin B12 – Ensure an adequate intake of grass-fed meats, free-range chicken and eggs, and wild-caught seafood for sufficient vitamin B12.
  • Caffeine Control – Limit caffeine consumption, as it can hinder thyroid hormone absorption, especially if you have hypothyroidism.
  • Sugar Moderation – Reduce excess sugar consumption, which can interfere with the T4 conversion necessary for thyroid function.
  • Alcohol in Moderation – If you have an underactive thyroid, consider minimizing alcohol intake, as it can suppress thyroid hormone production.


In conclusion, optimizing thyroid health requires a comprehensive approach. With the expert guidance of Dr. Rasha El Naggar, you can take proactive steps towards a healthier thyroid. Schedule a consultation with Dr. Rasha to begin your journey towards improved thyroid well-being.



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